What is activated carbon?
Activated carbon is a generic term for a carbon source that has been "activated" to display the ability to adsorb organic compounds. Carbon comes in many forms however modern activated carbon products are generated from wood, lignite, coal and coconut shells.
How is carbon activated?
A raw carbon source can be activated through exposure to high heat and steam or through a chemical activation process. In both cases the activation process involves the opening of the carbon's pore structure creating high energy voids within the carbon particle.
How does activated carbon work?
Organic contaminants (adsorbates) are attracted to pores within the carbon by a force known as Van De Wall's Force. It's a technical term to describe a surface phenomena in which the adsorbate is held onto, or retained by the carbon particle.
What types of activated carbon are there and where are they used?
Activated carbon is used in a variety of industries for the adsorption or removal of contaminants in gas and liquid phase treatment. Carbon is available in powdered, granular and extruded forms to suit a variety of applications.
How does Standard Purification make activated carbon and where is it used?
Standard Purification specializes in high performance wood, bituminous coal, coconut and lignite based powdered activated carbon products under the Watercarb name. Reclaimed wood resources along with additional high quality raw materials are brought to site for steam activation in high temperature rotary kilns. After activation the carbon is pulverized into a fine powder resembling talcum powder. Standard Purification's products are utilized in gas, liquid and solid phase applications like flue gas mercury capture (Stratocarb),municipal water treatment (Watercarb) and environmental remediation. AgCarb (AgCarb) is used as a soil amendment product in agricultural applications.
What is Watercarb and how is used?
Watercarb is used widely in municipal water treatment to adsorb Taste and Odor causing compounds from drinking water. Total Organic carbon (TOC) can also be reduced by dosing Watercarb which helps a water treatment plant control Disinfection By-Products (DBP’S), regulated closely by the EPA. Watercarb is also able to eliminate toxic contaminants like benzene, atrazine from drinking water supplies providing positive health effects for consumers.
What makes some carbons perform better than others?
The performance of activated carbon is dependent on a variety of factors referred to as adsorption parameters:
- Particle size – affects the rate of contaminant adsorption. Powdered carbon offers a quicker rate of adsorption in reduced contact treatment.
- Surface area – adsorption capacity is proportional to the available surface area. An indication of surface area is commercially represented by an Iodine number.
- Pore Size – the pore size is referred to as the internal volume of the carbon particle and dictates the efficiency or kinetics of the adsorption process.
What standards are applied to Activated Carbon?
The American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard B600 defines the physical and adsorptive quality of activated carbon used in water treatment.
The ANSI/NSF Standard 61 "Drinking Water System components" dictates minimum manufacturing standards.